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Fidel Castro: Ikon Revolusioner, Musuh Besar Imperialisme dan Arogansi Amerika

POROS PERLAWANAN – Fidel Castro adalah seorang pejuang revolusi yang sangat menentang paham imperialis. Namanya dikenal setelah berhasil memimpin Revolusi Kuba tahun 1959.

Castro menjabat Perdana Menteri Kuba pada tahun 1959-1976 dan setelahnya ia diangkat menjadi Presiden Kuba hingga mengundurkan diri pada 2008.

Pria bernama lengkap Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz ini lahir pada 13 Agustus 1926 di Biran, Kuba bagian timur. Ia dilahirkan dari keluarga petani kaya di kawasan tersebut. Castro merupakan anak terakhir dari enam bersaudara, ayahnya seorang veteran perang Spanyol-Amerika, dan ibunya adalah seorang pelayan.

Ketertarikannya dalam dunia politik dimulai saat menempuh studi ilmu hukum di Universitas Havana. Ia menjadi figur berpengaruh di kalangan mahasiswa pada saat itu karena sering terlibat dalam protes bahkan pemberontakan. Dari sinilah lahir paham anti-imperialisme yang sangat kuat mengakar dalam dirinya.

Puncak keberhasilan pergerakan Castro terjadi pada Januari 1959, kala ia bersama 800 pasukannya yang dikenal dengan “Gerakan 26 Juli” berhasil mengalahkan 30.000 prajurit diktator Fulgencio Batista, seorang “Presiden Boneka” Amerika Serikat. Berkat kesuksesan ini namanya menjadi tenar dan dianggap sebagai seorang pahlawan, hingga akhirnya diangkat menjadi Perdana Menteri Negeri Cerutu tersebut.

 

Sejak saat itu, pergerakannya semakin radikal. Di awal masa jabatannya sebagai Perdana Menteri Kuba, Fidel Castro mengeluarkan beberapa kebijakan yang dinilai memberatkan bagi perusahaan asing yang didominasi oleh AS. Hal ini membuat hubungan Washington–Havana memburuk. Di sisi lain, ia juga tak segan untuk mencopot dan membasmi elit-elit korup peninggalan Batista.

Ketegasan Castro membuat banyak pihak merasa terusik, termasuk para mantan pejabat Kuba, yang beberapa di antara mereka lantas melarikan diri ke Amerika dan membentuk pergerakan anti-Castro.

Puncak ketegangan antara Kuba dan AS terjadi pada 1961, dimulai dari keputusan Presiden AS Eisenhower untuk memutus hubungan diplomatik pada Januari 1961.

Pada 14 April 1961, Castro mengumumkan Kuba sebagai negara sosialis. Tiga hari kemudian, sekitar 1.400 orang Kuba yang berada di AS berusaha melakukan kudeta untuk menggulingkan pemerintahan Castro, namun upaya tersebut gagal dan sekitar 1000 pemberontak ditangkap sementara lainnya dibunuh. Kejadian inilah yang kemudian dikenal dengan sebutan “Insiden Teluk Babi”.

AS kemudian menyangkal bahwa pihaknya terlibat dalam insinden ini. Namun terkuak sebuah laporan yang menyatakan bahwa para pemberontak diberikan pelatihan oleh Badan Intelijen Pusat AS (CIA).

Fidel Castro dikenal sebagai pribadi yang sangat vokal. Dengan kekuatan negaranya yang tak seberapa, ia dengan tegas berani menentang negara adidaya Amerika Serikat yang dianggap sering mengeluarkan kebijakan yang menyengsarakan rakyat Kuba.

Selama masa jabatannya di pemerintahan Kuba, baik sebagai Perdana Menteri maupun sebagai Presiden, Castro tercatat sudah “berhadapan” dengan 11 Presiden AS, mulai dari Dwight Eisenhower hingga Barrack Obama.

Begitu bencinya terhadap Amerika, Castro sampai pernah mengeluarkan kebijakan untuk melarang peredaran dolar Amerika di Kuba. Kebijakan ini pada awalnya berdampak berat bagi perekonomian rakyat Kuba, namun lama-kelamaan, rakyat bisa bertahan dengan uang Peso mereka.

Tidak hanya melalui kebijakan, Castro juga tak segan untuk mengumpat Amerika di forum-forum internasional.

Dalam suatu sidang PBB, pria berjenggot tebal tersebut pernah berpidato sambil menggebrak-gebrak podium selama lebih dari 4 jam yang isinya hanya makian kepada Amerika. Pidato membara ini bahkan menjadi rekor dunia sebagai pidato internasional terpanjang. Namun bagi Castro, itu bukanlah hal yang penting, sebab tujuan utamanya adalah untuk membeberkan kebobrokan AS pada dunia.

Keberanian Castro tidak lantas membuat hidupnya tenang. Sejarah mencatat sebanyak 638 kali percobaan pembunuhan pernah ditujukan padanya dengan berbagai cara, mulai dari meletakkan bom dalam cerutu, hingga racun yang membuatnya menderita sakit kulit parah.

Memiliki pandangan yang sama, Fidel Castro begitu akrab dengan Presiden pertama Indonesia, Ir. Soekarno. Sang proklamator pernah mengirim sebuah surat yang isinya menyinggung tentang musuh bersama Kuba dan Indonesia, yaitu Nekolim atau Neo Kolonialisme yang diusung Amerika dan para sekutunya.

Dipandang sebagai teroris oleh Amerika, namun di dalam negeri Castro menjadi dambaan masyarakat Kuba. Berbagai kebijakan yang ia keluarkan sangat pro-rakyat dan berhasil memajukan Kuba.

Salah satu kebijakannya yang terkenal adalah pemberantasan buta huruf di Kuba. Dengan program pendidikan yang ia bangun, negara ini pada akhirnya 99,8% terbebas dari buta huruf.

Castro juga menaruh perhatian besar pada urusan kesehatan. Ia membangun banyak klinik dan sekolah-sekolah kesehatan. Berkat gebrakannya ini, Kuba sampai-sampai sering surplus jumlah dokter sehingga harus dikirim keluar negeri untuk dipekerjakan.

Sejarah perjuangan dan jalan hidup Fidel Castro yang ikonik menjadi bukti bahwa negara kecil dapat berdiri sejajar dengan negara adidaya, asal saja negara tersebut tak pernah kehilangan spirit perlawanan terhadap arogansi dan imperialisme.

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